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Units & Organizations
of the Italian Campaign
This menu provides details of the organization of the armies that participated in the Italian Campaign. This page contains some info on the organization of the United States infantry divisions, corps and independant units. The Menu will direct you to a other pages for the British, Canadian, Polish, and French as well as the Germans and Italians. The Brazililan Expeditionary Force is included this page as they were assigned to the American 5th Army.
US 5th Army Units & Organizations CLICK TO GO
Regiments & Supporting UnitsA handy Reference Table of all US Divisions of World War 2 and their associated Infantry Regiments, Field Artillery and Engineer Battalions. Includes the insignia for every US WW2 division.
Go to Statistics of Casualties and Troop Strength statistics and information related to the 5th Army.
Unit Insignia Patches
The following tables provides a brief description of each Army, Corps and Division that was associated with the American troops. The first table explains the higher commands that were in Italy, but the main purpose is to provide a quick reference for each of the U.S. divisions.The American soldier wore a patch on his left shoulder that identified his division or corps or army. The patches were usually not worn in the field, especially on the outer coat. Several of the shoulder patches for the divisions, corps and air forces are shown for only the US Divisions that served in the Italian Campaign between September 1943 to May 1945. For a complete list of all US Infantry Divisions, go to US Divisions - Regiments & Supporting Units. This link has includes a convenient table for cross-referencing the divisions to their respective regiments and artillery & engineer battalions.
The 15th Army Group was the highest command in Italy and commanded the 5th US Army and 8th British Army.
General Mark Clark was promoted to command the Group late in 1944.
(See Generals page for a photo of commanders from Group down to Division level.)
5THARMY The 5th Army was organized in North African, which shows in the design of the patch. The design of the patch was submitted by General Mark Clark. The 5th Army fought along the west coast of Italy, until the Allies reached the Po Valley, where it spread out in both directions. The 5th Army bore the brunt of many of the battles as the British 8th Army was tired from fighting in North Africa. The current Headquarters of the 5th Army is located in the Quadrangle at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX.
II CORPS The II Corps (usually written with Roman numerals) began its operations in North Africa. Later, in Italy the II Corps consisted of mostly US troops until more units appeared in 1945. IV CORPS
The IV Corps arrived Italy in March 1944 and entered combat in June 11, 1944. Fought continuously for 401 days. CG was Lt-Gen A. M. Patch and Maj-Gen Wilis D. Crittenberger.
1945 Po Valley Campaign: 10 Mtn, 34, 85, 92, 1 Armd, 6 S. African Armd, 1 Brazilian Divisions,
442 RCT, 473 RCT, 91 Cav Recon Sqd, 751, 756, 758, 760 Tnk Btln, 679, 791, 894 Tnk Destroyer, Legnano Group, 424 FA Btn, 1108 Engr Btn, 84 Chemical Btn, 7th Para? (Brit)
Italy, March 1944
VI CORPS The VI Corps was the American half of the 5th Army invasion of Italy at Salerno. It was commanded by Maj. Gen. Ernest J. Dawley and consisted of the 36th and 45th divisions and part of 82nd Airborne Division. Maj. Gen.John P. Lucas commanded the corps during the Anzio landings. Later it was composed of American and British. 8TH
The British 8th Army had fought a long hard campaign in the desert of North Africa before going into Sicily and then to Italy. The 8th Army landed on the "toe" of Italy a few days before the 5th landed at Salerno. From there, they progressed up the east coast of Italy. Many of the experienced units were transferred out of Italy, but the 8th Army remained during entire war.
CG- General Bernard 'Monty' Montgomery until 31 Dec 1943. Lt.-Gen Sir Oliver Leese. Gen Sir Richard L. McCreery from 1 Oct 1944 - end of war.
Army Order of Battle
of 15th Army Group for August 1944. Return to TOP
U.S. Units - Short HistoryDivision Level
A brief history that helps to identify some of the divisions & units.
Division arrived early and participated in Sicily campaign and Anzio.
10 July 1943, the Division made an assault landing on Sicily, fought
way into Palermo, and raced on to capture Messina. Nine days
the Italian invasion, 18 September 1943, the 3d landed at Salerno and
intensive action drove to and across the Volturno and to Cassino.
After a brief rest, it held the line at Anzio for 4 months. On 29
February 1944, the 3d fought off an attack by three German
After the fall of Rome, the 3rd began training for landing in Southern
France. On 15 August 1944, the Division landed at St. Tropez,
beginning its campaign in France.
This division still exists and saw service in Iraq(2003).
7, 15, 30 Regiments; 10, 39, 41, 10 FA; 3 Engr
Sicily: Sept - Aug 43. Italy: 18 Sept 1943 - July 1944, France
was one of the first US divisions to be sent to Europe and saw more
service than almost any US division; 500 days. The 34th departed
overseas in May 1942 and continued its training in Ireland. It
in North Africa from 8 Novermber 1942 until May 1943. The 151st
landed in Salerno invasion, with the Division following on 25
It took Mount Trocchio after a bitter fight, crossed the Rapido,
Monastery Hill, and fought its way into Cassino, being relieved 13
1944. After a rest, it advanced again on 23 May, taking Cisterna
and Civitavecchia. It liberated Livorno, 19 July 1944, and
on to take Mount Belmonte. In the Spring attack, it captured
on 21 April, 1945.
CG: Maj-Gen Charles L. Bolte replaced by Gen. Charles W. Ryder
133, 135, 168 Regiments; 125, 151, 175, 185 FA; 109 Engr
was one of the divisions that landed in Italy at Salerno. (I had an
in 36th who was taken prisoner at Salerno.) The 36th saw heavy
at San Pietro Infinite and was badly mauled near Cassino during the
of Rapido River on January 22, 1944. It was transferred from
to France soon after fall of Rome.
The division was reactivated in 2004.
141, 142, 143 Regiments; 131, 132, 133 FA; 155 Engr
Landing at Salerno Sept 43 - Aug 44
Division was another division that arrived in time to fight in
It served as the reserve for the landing at Salerno and later landed on
Anzio beach. After the fall of Rome, the 45th was pulled off the
line on June 16 and began to prepare for the landing in southern
Later, the 45th was involved in the liberation of Dachau concentration
159, 179, 180 Regiments; 158, 160, 171, 189 FA; 120 Engr
Sicily & Italy: Sept 43 - Aug 44. France; Aug 44
was another draftee division. Organized at Camp Shelby, MS, it
trained in Louisana and desert warfare training in Yuma, CA. The
85th embarked from US on 25 December 1943 and stopped in North Africa
landing in Italy. It entered the front line on 10 April 1944,
of the Garigliano River. During spring offense, it took
Castellonorato, and Formia, Itri and Terracina. The 85th pushed
Monte Compatri and Frascati, entered Rome on 5 June 1944, and advanced
to Viterbo before being relieved, 10 June. It lead the center
on the Gothic Line, 13 September, taking Firenzuola on the 21st. The
advanced against heavy resistance taking La Martina and gaining the
River Valley road, 2 October, and reaching Mount Mezzano on the
From southwest of Bologna, it pushed rapidly through the Po Valley,
the war at
[Note: Don't get this confused with the 85th Regiment of 10th Mountain Division or the German 85th Mountain Regiment.]
April 44 - Surrender
337, 338, 339 Regiments; 328, 329, 403, 910 FA; 310 Med
Division was a draftee division with an outstanding record with 307
of combat in the Italian Campaign. After intensive training in
Africa, it entered front lines Garigliano River near Minturno on 5
1944. During the Spring Offensive, it drove through Spigno, Mount
Civita, Itri, Fondi, and Roccagorga, and reached Anzio on 29 May.
Most accounts attribute a recon team of 88th Division as the first
unit to enter Rome on June 6, 1944. After a rest, it resumed its
attack on 5 July; taking Volterra, Laiatico, Villamagna, and
the Arno on 20 July. Attacked the GOTHIC Line on 21 September
along the Firenzuola-Imola Road. On 28th, it gained an advanced
on Mount Battaglia where it held against repeated enemy attacks.
Took Mount Grande and Farnetto on 22 October. The drive to the Po
Valley began on 15 April, where they took Monterumici. Advanced
the Po, thru Verona and Vicenza, and Dolomite Alps and linked up with
in Innsbruck, Austria.
In September 1944, Maj. Gen. John E. Sloan was replaced by Maj. Gen. Paul W. Kendall.
March 44 - Surrender
349, 350, 351 Regiments; 337, 338, 339, 913 FA; 313 Med
Division entered combat for the first time on 12 July, 1944, under the
command of Maj. Gen. William G. Livesay. This division
the port of Leghorn on 19 July before reaching the banks of the Arno
It was heavily involved in attacks on the GOTHIC Line and the capture
Il Futa Pass. Its name comes from the Powder River located near
Lewis, Washington, where it was organized in WW1.
361, 362, 363 Regiments; 346, 347, 348, 916 FA 316 Med
Buffalo Division was an all-black infantry division that was positioned
along the west coast of Italy late in 1944. The 370th Regiment
combat on the 24 August, 1944 in support of the 1st Armored Division.
participated in the crossing of the Arno River, the occupation of
and the pentration of the GOTHIC Line. On 26 December 1944 , the
Germans launched Operation WINTERGEWITTER against the sector containing
the 92nd Division. With help from other units, the German
was halted. The 442nd RCT and the 473rd Regiment (see
elsewhere in table) were sent to beef-up the 92nd Division. They
entered La Spezia and Genoa on the 27 April, 1945 and liberated several
towns along the Ligurian coast.
Activated: 15 Oct 42, Overseas: 22Sep 44, Inactivated: 28 Nov 45
365, 370, 371 Regiments; 597, 598, 599, 600 FA, 317 Med +442RCT +473RCT
Mountain Division attracted alot of college men who trained in
They arrived during winter of 1944-45 in Italy and fought for only 1
in snow. They made a reputation for themselves with the
The Division consisted of 85th, 86th & 87th Mountain
can easily be confused with 85th Infantry Division or the German 85th
Regiment, if you aren't careful). The most famous member of this
unit was a Lt. Robert Dole, later US Senator from Kansas. The unit
exists as the 10th Light Division.
85, 86, 87 Mtn Regiments; 604, 605, 616 FA; 126 Mtn Engr Btn
Feb 1945 - May 1945
Armored Division saw difficult service fighting Rommel's forces in
Africa. After some rest, it entered its first combat in
at Battle of Monte Porchia in January 1944. The 1st Armored
remained in Italy throughout the war.
CG: Maj-Gen Ernest N. Harmon replace by Gen. Vernon E. Prichard
6, 11, 14 Armd Batln; 1, 4, 13 Tank Btln; 81 Cav Recon, 16 Armd Engr, 47 Armd Med
The Division had one major re-organization. Formed into "Combat Commands" for more mobile unit of combined infantry and armor. Names were CCA & CCB.
No. Africa, Italy Dec 1943 - May 1945
|6th South African Armored||The 6th South African Armored Division was, of course, from South Africa, but was assigned to the US 5th Army. The 6th S.F. Armored and the 1st US Armored provided tank support to the infantry divisions.|
Task Forces - These were armored, mobile units of battalion size or larger.
|Task Force 45||Formed
by IV Corps Field Order No. 6 on on 26 July 44 and used to relieve
units at the Arno River line. Formed from the 45th AAA Brigade,
107th, 434th AA Groups and 751 Tank Battalion and Co. B of 805 Tank
Battalion. Many of these units were later formed into the 473rd
below). Strength varied from 3000 to 5000 men.
CG: Brig-Gen Paul W. Rutledge.
[SOURCE: "THE WAR NORTH OF ROME" & WEBSITE FOR 34TH DIVISION]
AA = Anti-Aircraft AAA = Anti-Aircraft Artillery
|"Howze"||Comprised chiefly of elements of the 1st Armored Division and part of 7th Infantry Regiment (3rd Division) and attached to II Corps. Advanced into Rome on 4 June, 1944.|
|"George"||Organized for the push through Po Valley & Vicenza. More to be added, later.|
|"Duff"||Organized for the push northwest through Po Valley.|
|"Rud" or "Rudforce"||A task force composed of Polish troops. Named after Gen Klemens Rudnicki.|
|"Brett"||Small force that advanced from Anzio towards Allied front lines during Spring Offensive. Consisted of 36th Combat Engineer Battalion. Another un-named task force consisting of elements of the 85th Division, drove towards Anzio to link up the two fronts.|
Combat Commands - See 1st Armored Division description, above.
Battalion or smaller
(REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM)
442nd Regimental Combat Team was a unit larger than an infantry
that was made up of Japanese-Americans, or commonly referred to as
After bombing of Pearl Harbor, many Americans of Japanese descent were
confined to secure camps . The 442nd RCT were recruited from
from Hawaii and trained in Camp Shelby, MS and with the 85th Division
Louisana. The unit was sent to Italy, then to Southern France for
a time and then back to Italy, the only unit of that size to do
so. The 442nd was assigned to 34th Division from
1944 and the 88th Division during the Rome-Arno Campaign. It
in France(Rhineland) with the 36th Division and with the 92nd
in Italy during the Apennines and Po Valley Campaign. The most
member of this unit is Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii. To see
Hollywood said about them, rent the movie "Go
For Broke". This unit is sometimes refered
to as the 100th Battalion (see below).
Consisted of 3 battalions of 4 companies, each and 522 FA & 232 Engr.
Italy: Jun- Aug 1944, France Aug 1944- Feb 1945, Italy May 1945
|1st Special Service Forces||A
& Canadian commando unit comprised of 1600 men. Earned its
by assaulting Monte la Defensa in Oct 1943. At Anzio, they
the decimated Rangers and held their position. Concept for the
Activated in July 1942. Trained at Fort Harrison, Montana. Departed Italy on 14 August 1944. Depicted in the movie "The Black Brigade".
Italy: Salerno & Anzio
(REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM)
trained as an anti-aircraft unit, they were re-formed as an infantry
and assigned to support the 92nd 'Buffalo' Division on 24 Feb 1945.
Formed from HQ 2nd Armored Group, 435th, 434th, 532nd and 900th AAA Battalions.
battalion of Japanese-Americans that became a part of the 442nd
The 100th Battalion became the 1st battalion of the 442RCT or companies
Current unit is training for Iraq as 100th/442 Regimental Combat Team(Seperate).
|91st Cavalry Recon Squadron||This was an independant, armored, mobile recon unit. It should not to be confused with 91st Recon Troop(Mechanized) of 91st Division. Each infantry division had a recon unit attached to it. Reference: Organizational table in "15th Army Group".|
Parachute Infantry Regiment
504th Parachute Combat Team
|Intended to join
82nd Airborne Division in Ireland but was sent to Anzio by request of
The US paratroopers got the name "devils in baggy pants" from a German
diary found at Anzio.
CG- Colonel Reuben H. Tucker
504 PIR, 376 Parachute Artillery Btn and 307 Parachute Engr, Company C.
Battalions served in Italy; some left to go to France. The tank
were assigned to the infantry divisions, as well as the armored
for additional fire support. The following are some of the Tank
that served in Italy.
751, 752, 756, 758(Light), 760
|Tank Destroyer Battalions||Tank
Battalions acted as anti-tank support for infantry and armored units.
following are some of the Tank Battalions that served in Italy.
679, 757, 776, 791, 804, 805, 894
|Chemical Battalions||Chemical Battalions provided smoke screens to conceal troop movement. There were several chemical battalions in Italy. The one that was there the longest was the 84th Chemical Battalion.|
|15th Air Force||The 15th Air Force was the strategic force that flew 4-engine bombers. They were based in various airfields around Foggia, on the east side of the "heel" of Italy. From this location, they could bomb Vienna, Austria, the oil refineries in Polesti, Rumania and Czechoslavkia, and key industrial targets in Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Germany.|
|12th Tactical Air Force||The 12th Tactical Air Force flew low-level, ground support missions with medium bombers.|
|Meditteranean Allied Air Force||The MAAF, or Mediterranean Allied Air Force, commanded the overall use of air power of the 12th Air Force, 15th Air Force and the British Desert Air Force(DAF).|
|Desert Air Force||DAF was a British Royal Air Force unit located in N. Africa and later in Italy.|
Recent photo of the current 5th Army Headquarters at the Quadrangle at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX.
Return to TOP
Order of Battle
25th August 1944
After the fall of Rome, the Germans retreated back across the Arno River and into the natural defenses of the Appenine Mountains. Several experienced Allied divisions were pulled out of Italy and sent to southern France. The Allied Army launched an attack against the well-prepared GOTHIC Line defenses without a man-power superiority required for victory.
The Germans were able to hold the Allied advance and prevent them from entering the Po Valley before the fall rains and winter came. This is the organization of the Corps and Divisions during the fall of 1944. The commanders names are listed in (paranthesis).
FIFTHTEENTH ARMY GROUP
FIFTH U.S. ARMY
II CORPS (Keyes)
34TH INFANTRY DIVISION (Walker)
88TH INFANTRY DIVISION (Kendall)
91ST INFANTRY DIVISION (Livesay)
IV CORPS (Crittenberger)
6TH SOUTH AFRICAN ARMORED DIVISION (Poole)
85TH INFANTRY DIVISION (Coulter)
442ND REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM
XIII BRITISH CORPS (Kirkman)
1ST (BRITISH) INFANTRY DIVISION (Loewen)
6TH (BRITISH) ARMORED DIVISION (Murray)
8TH (INDIAN) INFANTRY DIVISION (Russell)
BRAZILIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (Mascarenas de Morais)
1ST U.S. ARMORED DIVISION (Prichard)
V CORPS (Keightley)
EIGHTH BRITISH ARMY
1ST ARMOURED DIVISION (Hull)
4TH INFANTRY DIVISION (Ward)
4TH (INDIAN) INFANTRY DIVISION (Holworthy)
46TH INFANTRY 'NORTH MIDLAND' DIVISION (Hawkesworth)
56TH INFANTRY 'LONDON' DIVISION (Whitfield)
7TH ARMOURED BRIGADE
25TH TANK BRIGADE
I CANADIAN CORPS (Burns)
1ST INFANTRY DIVISION (Vokes)
2ND NEW ZEALAND DIVISION (Freyberg)
5TH ARMOURED DIVISION (Hoffmeister)
21ST TANK BRIGADE
3RD GREEK MOUNTAIN BRIGADE
II POLISH CORPS (Anders)
3RD CARPATHIAN RIFLE DIVISION
5TH KRESOWA INFANTRY DIVISION
2ND ARMOURED BRIGADE
X BRITISH CORPS (McCreery)
10TH (INDIAN) INFANTRY DIVISION (Reid)
9TH ARMOURED BRIGADE
2ND NEW ZEALAND INFANTRY DIVISION
3RD GREEK MOUNTAIN BRIGADE
Return to TOP of Page
5th Army consisted of IV Corps in the west, under Maj. Gen. Willis D. Crittenberger, and the U.S. II Corps in the east, under Maj. Gen. Geoffrey Keyes
34th Infantry Division
85th Infantry Division
88th Infantry Division
91st Infantry Division
92nd Infantry Division
1st Armored Division
1st Brazilian Infantry Division
Italian Legnano Combat Group
6th South African Armored Division
British Eighth Army, commanded by General Sir Richard L. McCreery, included the Polish 2d Corps and the British 5th, 10th, and 13th Corps, and controlled eight divisions from four different nations, as well as four free Italian battle groups and a Jewish brigade.
- Allied attack on 11 May 1944,
Fifth Army casualties
17,931 US casualties: 3,145 KIA, 13,704 WIA, and 1,082 MIA.
10,635 French (5th Army) casualties
3,355 British (5th Army) casualties
Eighth Army casualties 11,639
Total Allied - 43,000
German 38,000, for 10th and 14th Armies, not including 15,606 PW.
- Apennine Mountains
September 12-18 - Attack to capture Il Futa Pass
II Corps(91st & 85th Divisions) had sustained 2,730 casualties.
September 22 - 31, 88th Division suffered 2,105 casualties.
October 4 - 91st Division lost over 1,730 American casualties in just four days.
October 5-9 - Fifth Army units advanced only three more miles, taking an additional 1,400 casualties.
In Summary, between 10 September and 26 October, 1944
II Corps(4 divisions) over 15,000 casualties ( 88th Division alone over 5,000 men).
Eighth Army - 14,000 casualties for about same period.
CASUALTIES - 5th Army
189,000 casualties within all US and foriegn units of the US 5th Army.
American Casualties: 109,642 including 19,475 Killed.
Source: "Calculated Risk" by Gen Clark
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