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Dated:  October 25, 2008


Allied and German Military Commanders

This page is not a comprehensive list of all the commanders during all the months of fighting and changes of command.  But hopefully, this page along with my Glossary of Words will identify some of the names or faces of leaders in the Italian Campaign.  I am adding photos of generals that I can add without infringing on any copy-right laws.
See Units and Organizations for more info on military commanders.
See Glossary of People and Places for list of civilian, religious, and political leaders and their positions.
   A group of American Generals covering 6 Command levels
Photo dated February 1945 (L to R).

    1- Major-Gen Alfred M. Gruenther, Chief of Staff 15th Army Group
    2- Lt-Gen Mark W. Clark, CG of 15th Army Group
    3- General of the Army George C. Marshall
    4- Lt-Gen Lucian K. Truscott, CG of 5th Army after Dec 1944.
    5- Major-Gen Edward M. Almond, CG of 92nd Division
    6- Lt-Gen Joseph McNarney - US Army Mediterranean Theater of Operations
    7- Major-Gen Willis D. Crittenberger, CG of IV Corps

The same shot from a color camera.

A good study of the variety of uniforms worn by US.  The unit patches can be seen on several of the commanders.
Major-Gen Willis D. Crittenberger, CG of IV Corps   (above photo)
  General Crittenberger (1890-1980) was a West Point graduate of 1913.  He served as an intellegience officer in the Phillippines in 1930s and then was assigned to 1st Cavalry(Mechanized).  He served as Chief of Staff of the 1st Armored Division(1942) and C.G. of 2nd Armored Corps, 2nd Armored Division.  He served as commander of several Armored Corps before being assigned as C.G. of IV Corps.  He had one son killed while crossing the Rhine in 1945 and another son killed in Viet Nam.  Gen Crittenberger, his wife and two sons are buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
Lt-Gen Joseph T. McNarney (above photo) served as Gen Marshall's  Vice Chief of Staff in March 1942. In October 1944, he became commander of Mediterranean Theater of Operations, and Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean, under Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson. McNarney gained his fourth star in March 1945.

Major-General Alfred Maximilian Gruenther (above photo) served as General Clark's Cheif of Staff during his entire time in N. Africa and Italy.  After the war he became Chief of Staff for Plans up to 1951, then SHAEF Chief of Staff to 1953.  He succeeded Ridgeway as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe in 1953.  He died in 1983 at age of 84.

Major-General Edward "Ned" M. Almond (1892- 1979) (above photo) saw combat experience in WW1 and in Philippines in 1930s.  He was commanding general of 92nd Division from October 1942 until August 1945.  After WW2, he joined General McArthur's staff and rose to Chief of Staff for the Far Eastern Command.  In September 1950, MacArthur appointed Almond as commander of the X Corps.  When MacArthur was recalled by President Truman, Almond retained both assignments, a controversial position.  In 1951 he was the Commandant of the Army War College.  After retirement, he was president of Virginia Military Institute from 1961 until 1968. 

Leese & Alexander with Churchill
Lt.-General  Sir Oliver Leese (left) and General Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander(right) are conferring with Mr. Winston Churchill (seated) in August 1944 somewhere in Italy.
General Leese replaced General Montgomery as commander of the 8th Army.
Gen. Alexander commanded the 15th Army Group, as noted by the square  shoulder patch. Mr. Churchill is wearing the uniform of his old unit; the 4th Hussars.
Photo from "The Italian Campaign"- by John Strawson.


General Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander
Commanding General of 15th Army Group
Overall commander of the British 8th Army and American 5th Army until Dec 1944.
General Alexander was charge of the retreat at Dunkirk and the retreat in Burma.  When he returned, he was knighted and sent to command the troops in North Africa.
Photo was taken at the Guards Museum, which is located on
a lane
in front of Buckingham Palace.


Lt.-General Wladyslaw Anders
CG of the Polish Corps

See British Units for a list of Polish officers.

  Commanding General of 85th Infantry Division
Brig.-General John B. Coulter
CG of 85th "Custer" Division during entire time it was in combat.

Ernst-Geunther Baade
  CG of 90th Armored Infantry Division defending Cassino.
Later, he went into hiding for killing an SS  officer, who tried to give him an order. Wounded by British airplane, he died the last day of the war.

Heinrich von Vietinghoff
General Vietinghoff became commander of German forces in Italy after Gen. Kesserling went back to Germany.


Mussolini and Hitler early in 1939.
Hitler and Mussolini were both trying to impress each other by their military might
while forming an alliance.  Hitler promised Mussolini that he would not start a war until Italy
had time to build up Italy's military forces. A week later he invaded Poland.
News release photo from my collection.
See  Execution of Mussolini - Photos and details of Il Duce's lasts days.


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